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On average, it takes a hacker about two seconds to crack an 11-character password that uses only numbers. Throw in some upper- and lower-case letters, and it will take a hacker one minute to hack into a seven-character password.

Cybercriminals use sophisticated software that can run thousands of password combinations a minute, and their tools are only getting better. A general rule is that your password should be at least 11 characters and use numbers, along with upper and lowercase letters. That combination will take hackers 41 years to crack.

According to the tool, the shorter your password, the easier it is guessed. Even if you use all the possible variations. Use eight characters and it will be cracked in hours. Seven characters will be breached in minutes, and six or fewer characters will take mere seconds.

As the chart indicates, to prevent a successful brute force attack on your password, you should have at least 10 characters that use the full range of options. Anything shorter than that, and it will only take a few days to crack.

If you are unsure whether your passwords are strong enough, check out the How Secure Is My Password tool. By putting in some of your passwords, the system will tell you how long it will take a hacker to crack.

Abstract:In the process of road pavement health and safety assessment, crack detection plays a pivotal role in a preventive maintenance strategy. Recently, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been applied to automatically identify the cracks on concrete pavements. The effectiveness of a CNN-based road crack detection and measurement method depends on several factors, including the image segmentation of cracks with complex topology, the inference of noises with similar texture to the distress, and the sensitivity to thin cracks. The presence of shadows, strong light reflections, and road markings can also severely affect the accuracy in detection and measurement. In this study, a review of the state-of-the-art CNN methods for crack identification is presented, paying attention to existing limitations. Then, a novel deep residual convolutional neural network (Parallel ResNet) is proposed with the aim of creating a high-performance pavement crack detection and measurement system. The challenge and special feature of Parallel ResNet is to remove the noise inference, identifying even thin and complex cracks correctly. The performance of Parallel ResNet has been investigated on two publicly available datasets (CrackTree200 and CFD), comparing it with that of competing methods suggested in the literature. Parallel ResNet reached the maximum scores in Precision (94.27%), Recall (92.52%), and F1 (93.08%) using the CrackTree200 dataset. Similarly, for the CFD dataset the novel method achieved high values in Precision (96.21%), Recall (95.12%), and F1 (95.63%). Based on the crack detection and image recognition results, mathematical morphology was then used to further minimize noise and accurately segment the road diseases, obtaining the outer contours of the connected domain in crack images. Therefore, crack skeletons have been extracted to measure the distress length, width, and area on images of rigid pavements. The experimental results show that Parallel ResNet can effectively minimize noise to obtain the geometry of cracks. The results of crack characteristic measurements are accurate and Parallel ResNet can be assumed as a reliable method in pavement crack image analysis, in order to plan the best road maintenance strategy.Keywords: pavement monitoring; crack detection; crack measurement; automated distress evaluation systems; image processing; convolutional neural networks; residual network

This tutorial walks you through cracking WPA/WPA2 networks which use pre-shared keys. I recommend you do some background reading to better understand what WPA/WPA2 is. The Wiki links page has a WPA/WPA2 section. The best document describing WPA is Wi-Fi Security - WEP, WPA and WPA2. This is the link to download the PDF directly. The WPA Packet Capture Explained tutorial is a companion to this tutorial.

WPA/WPA2 supports many types of authentication beyond pre-shared keys. aircrack-ng can ONLY crack pre-shared keys. So make sure airodump-ng shows the network as having the authentication type of PSK, otherwise, don't bother trying to crack it.

There is another important difference between cracking WPA/WPA2 and WEP. This is the approach used to crack the WPA/WPA2 pre-shared key. Unlike WEP, where statistical methods can be used to speed up the cracking process, only plain brute force techniques can be used against WPA/WPA2. That is, because the key is not static, so collecting IVs like when cracking WEP encryption, does not speed up the attack. The only thing that does give the information to start an attack is the handshake between client and AP. Handshaking is done when the client connects to the network.Although not absolutely true, for the purposes of this tutorial, consider it true. Since the pre-shared key can be from 8 to 63 characters in length, it effectively becomes impossible to crack the pre-shared key.

The only time you can crack the pre-shared key is if it is a dictionary word or relatively short in length. Conversely, if you want to have an unbreakable wireless network at home, use WPA/WPA2 and a 63 character password composed of random characters including special symbols.

IMPORTANT This means that the passphrase must be contained in the dictionary you are using to break WPA/WPA2. If it is not in the dictionary then aircrack-ng will be unable to determine the key.

The purpose of this step is to actually crack the WPA/WPA2 pre-shared key. To do this, you need a dictionary of words as input. Basically, aircrack-ng takes each word and tests to see if this is in fact the pre-shared key.

The Preamble arranges basic information on the "who, what, where, when, and why" of a document for the reader's convenience. For Rules and Proposed Rules it explains the basis and purpose of the regulatory text, but contains no regulatory text.

Treason!If you've got the hang of coding messages by shifting the alphabet forward, then you might have realised that it is actually pretty simple to crack this type of code. It can easily be done just by trial and error. An enemy code breaker would only have to try out 25 different possible shifts before they were able to read your messages, which means that your messages wouldn't be secret for verylong.So, what about coding messages another way Instead of writing a letter, we could write a symbol, or draw a picture. Instead of an 'A' we could write *, instead of a 'B' write + etc. For a long time, people thought this type of code would be really hard to crack. It would take the enemy far too long to figure out what letter of the alphabet each symbol stood for just by trying all the possiblecombinations of letters and symbols. There are 400 million billion billion possible combinations!This type of code was used by Mary Queen of Scots when she was plotting against Elizabeth the First. Mary wanted to kill Elizabeth so that she herself could become Queen of England and was sending coded messages of this sort to her co-conspirator Anthony Babington. Unfortunately for Mary, there is a very simple way of cracking this code that doesn't involve trial and error, but which doesinvolve, surprise, surprise, maths.

With the card still inserted at the top of the iPhone, slide the card all the way under the glass across the entire width of the iPhone. Slowly slide the card down towards the bottom of the phone, while simultaneously lifting the screen protector away from the screen. The key is to do this slowly as possible, as to not apply too much pressure to the glass (which may cause it to bend and crack, which could damage your phone). 153554b96e


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