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Shot in Cape Town, South Africa, the movie opens with a brutal, high-tech bank heist in which the identity of Alex (Olga Kurylenko), a disguised thief with a secret past, is accidentally revealed. This sets the fierce Alex on a deadly cat-and-mouse chase involving her wily partner and ex-boyfriend (Colin Moss), a cache of diamonds, a hot-potato flash drive, a corrupt United States senator (et tu, Morgan Freeman), an incriminating video and any other boilerplate ingredients that may provide the requisite, er, momentum.
We investigate the electronic reconstruction across the tetragonal-orthorhombic structural transition in FeSe by employing polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on detwinned single crystals. Across the structural transition, the electronic structures around the Γ and M points are modified from fourfold to twofold symmetry due to the lifting of degeneracy in dxz/dyz orbitals. The dxz band shifts upward at the Γ point, while it moves downward at the M point, suggesting that the electronic structure of orthorhombic FeSe is characterized by a momentum-dependent sign-changing orbital polarization. Due to this sign-changing orbital order, the elongated directions of the elliptical Fermi surfaces at the Γ and M points are rotated by 90 with respect to each other, which makes the nesting condition between these FSs imperfect. The present result, supported by calculations, indicates the possible suppression of the spin-fluctuation mediated superconductivity in the orthorhombic FeSe, as compared to the orbital-ordered state without sign change.
Abstract. Nearly all general circulation models significantly fail to reproduce the observed behaviour of the southern wintertime polar vortex. It has been suggested that these biases result from an underestimation of gravity wave drag on the atmosphere at latitudes near 60 S, especially around the "hot spot" of intense gravity wave fluxes above the mountainous Southern Andes and Antarctic peninsula. Here, we use Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS-RO) data from the COSMIC satellite constellation to determine the properties of gravity waves in the hot spot and beyond. We show considerable southward propagation to latitudes near 60 S of waves apparently generated over the southern Andes. We propose that this propagation may account for much of the wave drag missing from the models. Furthermore, there is a long leeward region of increased gravity wave energy that sweeps eastwards from the mountains over the Southern Ocean. Despite its striking nature, the source of this region has historically proved difficult to determine. Our observations suggest that this region includes both waves generated locally and orographic waves advected downwind from the hot spot. We describe and use a new wavelet-based analysis technique for the quantitative identification of individual waves from COSMIC temperature profiles. This analysis reveals different geographical regimes of wave amplitude and short-timescale variability in the wave field over the Southern Ocean. Finally, we use the increased numbers of closely spaced pairs of profiles from the deployment phase of the COSMIC constellation in 2006 to make estimates of gravity wave horizontal wavelengths. We show that, given sufficient observations, GPS-RO can produce physically reasonable estimates of stratospheric gravity wave momentum flux in the hot spot that are consistent with measurements made by other techniques. We discuss our results in the context of previous satellite and modelling studies and explain how they advance our understanding of the nature and origins of waves in the southern stratosphere.
The following chart shows the value and momentum scores for the ten broad asset classes we consider. The upper right area is the ideal spot for an investment, indicating both attractive value and positive momentum. You can see that value and momentum are usually opposites, with most investments attractive in terms of one, but not both.
Even with the market volatility over the summer, the relative rankings at least for these 4 asset classes have not changed. One of the benefits beyond performance of adding value to momentum is reducing the frequency of trading.
Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations for GW momentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.
Compared with the market, value, or size factors, momentum has offered investors the highest Sharpe ratio. However, momentum has also had the worst crashes, making the strategy unappealing to investors who dislike negative skewness and kurtosis. We find that the risk of momentum is highly variable over time and predictable. Managing this risk virtually eliminates crashes and nearly doubles the Sharpe ratio of the momentum strategy. Risk-managed momentum is a much greater puzzle than the original version.
Experiences affect mood, which in turn affects subsequent experiences. Recent studies suggest two specific principles. First, mood depends on how recent reward outcomes differ from expectations. Second, mood biases the way we perceive outcomes (e.g., rewards), and this bias affects learning about those outcomes. We propose that this two-way interaction serves to mitigate inefficiencies in the application of reinforcement learning to real-world problems. Specifically, we propose that mood represents the overall momentum of recent outcomes, and its biasing influence on the perception of outcomes 'corrects' learning to account for environmental dependencies. We describe potential dysfunctions of this adaptive mechanism that might contribute to the symptoms of mood disorders.
Abstract. The dependence of the gravity wave spectra of energy and momentum flux on the horizontal resolution and time step of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) has been thoroughly investigated in the past. In contrast, much less attention has been given to the dependence of these gravity wave parameters on models' vertical resolutions. The present study demonstrates the dependence of gravity wave momentum flux (GWMF) in the stratosphere and mesosphere on the model's vertical resolution, which is evaluated using an AGCM with a horizontal resolution of about 0.56. We performed a series of sensitivity test simulations changing only the model's vertical resolution above a height of 8 km, and found a global reduction of GWMF with increasing vertical resolution. Inertial gravity waves with short vertical wavelengths simulated at higher vertical resolutions might play an important role in determining GWMF in the summertime stratosphere. The sensitivity test simulation also demonstrated the importance of the model's vertical resolution on representing realistic behaviors of gravity waves near their critical level.
After years of being the sidekick to major Hollywood action dudes and James Bonds past and present, Olga Kurylenko finally has an action franchise to call her own. Hell yes. There's nothing new or imaginative at work here; Momentum is conventional DTV action, and that's exactly what I wanted. Standard plot developments involving a heist gone wrong and a truther-rific government conspiracy are mostly a backdrop for solid action scenes and half-baked one-liners delivered with surprising passion. The real momentum (shut up) comes from Kurylenko's intense performance and her interactions with James Purefoy, playing the snarling, snooty villain to hilarious effect, but there are lots of other sources of fun, including a rad parking garage car chase, dudes being beaten to death with a child's bulldozer toy, and goofy futuristic burgling equipment. I APPROVE OF ALL OF THESE THINGS. Momentum is my jam.
In direct-injection engines, combustion and emission formation is strongly affected by injection quality. Injection quality is related to mass-flow rate shape, momentum rate shape, stability of pulses as well as mechanical and hydraulic delays associated with fuel injection. Finding these injector characteristics aids the interpretation of engine experiments and design of new injection strategies. The goal of this study is to investigate the rate of momentum for the single and post injections for high-pressure direct-injection natural gas injectors. The momentum measurement method has been used before to study momentum rate of injection for single and split injections for diesel sprays. In this paper, a method of momentum measurement for gas injections is developed in order to present transient momentum rate shape during injection timing. In this method, a gas jet impinges perpendicularly on a pressure transducer surface. A range of parameters including gas pressure and injection duration is considered in the experiments at a constant back pressure to validate the method. The method also allows us to find mechanical, electrical and hydraulic delays of the injector. Split injections have been studied using this method and it is found that pressure reflection problems found in the conventional rate tube testing, reported in literature, does not exist in this momentum measurement method. The results show that smaller pulses with lower injection pressures have higher coefficient of variation. 59ce067264